Plan Jefes y Jefas de Hogar Desocupados follows a workfare model, with employment and job-seeking criteria. The scheme is managed through a network of job centres at municipality level. Income transfer to unemployed heads of households with dependents under the age of 18 or with disabled individuals of any age. To be eligible for the cash transfer the recipient needs to be involved in one of these actively: a training program, work for the community for up to 20 hours per week, or work for a private company which receives an employment subsidy. The program provides cash for the unemployed heads of households with dependents under the age of 18 or with disabled individuals of any age. Women are considered "inactive" if not working in the formal labor market, and are less likely to participate in formal labor market(Galasso and Ravillon 2003). Further, "economically inactive women are deemed 'unemployable' regardless of education level or age"(Faur 2008a: 26). The Plan acknowledges that some households are headed by women and that women are not only wives and mothers but potential workers. Male-female division of labor maintained, with women doing community level care work, and men working in construction or maintenance (Faur 2008b). Women are more likely than men to be affected by household composition, especially regarding number of children and elderly (i.e the ration of care-helpers to care-needers within the household). They are more likely to be unskilled.
The beneficiaries will be involved mainly in local community projects that provide improvements to the local infrastructure (sanitation, housing, better sidewalks, irrigation schemas, road maintenance, school and hospital maintenance, etc.), as well as services appropriated by the community, its residents, and small-scale business, such as day care, school support, health support, etc.
The plan has a considerable gender bias towards women. As a matter of fact, 71% of the beneficiaries are women and 60% of those households are single-headed. It could be said that the household survival strategy is what defines who gets into the program; in general, it is the member of the household that has the least chance of getting a job in the market. Obviously this can be done only in those households with an informal or nonregistered relationship in the couple.
Government of Argentina, Ministro de Economia y Finanzas Publicas, Ministerio del Desarrollo Social
Period of implementation: